Based on research generously provided by Thomas E. Rassieur at the Minneapolis Institute of Art, and narrated by Dr. Naraelle Hohensee A set of keys and a purse hang from the belt of her long dress. Albrecht Dürer, Knight, Death, and Devil, 1513, engraving on laid paper, 1941.1.20, Albrecht Dürer, Saint Jerome in His Study, 1514, engraving on laid paper, 1949.1.11, Albrecht Dürer, Melencolia I, 1514, engraving, 1949.1.17, Albrecht Dürer, Self-portrait with gloves at age 26, 1498, Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain, Photo Credit: Scala / Art Resource, NY. Le tableau est célèbre et inspirera de nombreux artistes de Paul Verlaine à Lars von Trier , en passant pas Jean-Paul Sartre . [7][8] The prints are considered thematically related by some art historians, depicting labours that are intellectual (Melencolia I), moral (Knight), or spiritual (St. Jerome) in nature. Albrecht Dürer’s enigmatic Melencolia I has inspired and provoked viewers for nearly half a millennium. In an unfinished book for young artists, he cautions that too much exertion may lead one to "fall under the hand of melancholy". Dürer était à la fois graveur, peintre et mathématicien. Albrecht Dürer (1471–1528), one of the greatest of all German artists, was a painter, printmaker, draftsman, and theoretician. [24], A bat-like creature spreads its wings across the sky, revealing a banner printed with the words "Melencolia I". The intensity of her gaze, however, suggests an intent to depart from traditional depictions of this temperament. « Melencolia I », Albrecht Dürer (gravure sur cuivre, 1514) L’œuvre Melencolia , I, de Dürer met en œuvre un ensemble de symboles et de thèmes typiques de la Renaissance. Albrecht Dürer, Melencolia I, 1514, engraving, 24.45 x 19.37 cm (Minneapolis Institute of Art). dürer, melencolia i, durer, allemand, allemagne, 1514, gravure, maître de la renaissance allemande albrecht dürer Albrecht Dürer, Melencolia I, 1514 Robe trapèze Par edsimoneit MELENCOLIA I DOINA CONSTANTINESCU† Universidad Lucian Blaga- Rumania Φ 1. Dürer ne saurait profiter de sa bibliothèque colossale sans l'aide éclairée de son ami Pirckheimer et du cercle qui l'entoure. Melancholia was thought to attract daemons that produced bouts of frenzy and ecstasy in the afflicted, lifting the mind toward genius. The art historian Erwin Panofsky, whose writing on the print has received the most attention, detailed its possible relation to Renaissance humanists' conception of melancholia. MELENCOLIA § I 1514 - Gravure au burin sur cuivre (?) In 1991, Peter-Klaus Schuster published Melencolia I: Dürers Denkbild,[51] an exhaustive history of the print's interpretation in two volumes. The figure wears a wreath of "wet" plants to counteract the dryness of melancholy, and she has the dark face and dishevelled appearance associated with the melancholic. [22] The ladder leaning against the structure has no obvious beginning or end, and the structure overall has no obvious function. Du 23 janvier au 25 février 2013, le musée Unterlinden de Colmar expose La Mélancolie (1514) d’Albrecht Dürer.À travers cette gravure, véritable allégorie de la mélancolie, réalisée alors que s’annonce la Réforme, Dürer s’intéresse à ce tempérament décrit dès l’antiquité. (Dürer wrote a treatise on human proportions, one of his last major accomplishments.) The print was taken up in Romantic poetry of the nineteenth century in English and French.[63]. Stay up to date about our exhibitions, news, programs, and special offers. A commonly quoted note refers to the keys and the purse—"Schlüssel—gewalt/pewtell—reichtum beteut" ("keys mean power, purse means wealth")[11]—although this can be read as a simple record of their traditional symbolism. • Melencolia est la gravure autour de laquelle est construite l'intrigue du roman de Henri Loevenbruck, Le Testament des siècles, qui a également été adapté en BD. Le goût d'Albrecht Dürer pour les mathématiques se retrouve dans la gravure Melencolia, tableau dans lequel il glisse un carré magique, un polyèdre constitué de deux triangles équilatéraux et six pentagones irréguliers. [19], In Perfection's Therapy (2017), Merback argues that Dürer intended Melencolia I as a therapeutic image. [48] Melencolia I portrays a state of lost inspiration: the figure is "surrounded by the instruments of creative work, but sadly brooding with a feeling that she is achieving nothing. Download a digital image of this work, Albrecht Dürer (artist), German, 1471 – 1528, Melencolia I, 1514, engraving on laid paper, sheet (trimmed to plate mark): 24.2 x 18.8 cm (9 1/2 x 7 3/8 in. Melencolia I Melencolia I. C’est le titre d’une gravure de 1514 du peintre de la renaissance Albrecht Dürer, qui y dépeint la mélancolie (du grec melancholia, pour melas, noir et cholée, humeur). This, in a word, is a form of katharsis—not in the medical or religious sense of a 'purgation' of negative emotions, but a 'clarification' of the passions with both ethical and spiritual consequences". Melencolia I has been the subject of more scholarship than probably any other print. Albrecht Dürer, quoted in Erwin Panofsky, Albrecht Dürer (Princeton University Press, 1943), vol. 6th St and Constitution Ave NW [19] She sits on a slab with a closed book on her lap, holds a compass loosely, and gazes intensely into the distance. Il profiterait notamment des conseils d'un prêtre astronome et mathématicien, Johannes Werner (1468-1528), réputé pour sa pédagogie. Doorly interprets the many useful tools in the engraving as symbolizing this idea; even the dog is a "useful" hunting hound. A ladder leans against a building that supports a balance, an hour glass, and a bell. There is little documentation to provide insight into Dürer's intent. Genius, however, is tricky business. Le goût d'Albrecht Dürer pour les mathématiques se retrouve dans la gravure Melencolia, tableau dans lequel il glisse un carré magique, un polyèdre constitué de deux triangles équilatéraux et six pentagones irréguliers. In the Baroque period, representations of Melancholy and Vanity were combined. wrote that "the meaning of this picture is obvious at first glance; all human activity, practical no less than theoretical, theoretical no less than artistic, is vain, in view of the vanity of all earthly things. Most art historians view the print as an allegory, assuming that a unified theme can be found in the image if its constituent symbols are "unlocked" and brought into conceptual order. Melencolia dans l’œuvre de Dürer. The sky contains a rainbow, a comet or planet, and a bat-like creature bearing the text that has become the print's title. Melencolia I ou La Melencolia est le nom donné à une gravure sur cuivre d'Albrecht Dürer datée de 1514. Melencolia - Dürer. West Building © 2021 National Gallery of Art   Notices   Terms of Use   Privacy Policy. ALBRECHT DÜRER. A few years earlier, the Viennese art historian Karl Giehlow had published two articles that laid the groundwork for Panofsky's extensive study of the print. The rightmost portion of the background may show a large wave crashing over land. Closed, Sculpture Garden Alors que le Saint Jérôme et Chevalier, la … "[35] Later, the 16th-century art historian Giorgio Vasari described Melencolia I as a technical achievement that "puts the whole world in awe".[36]. Other art historians see the figure as pondering the nature of beauty or the value of artistic creativity in light of rationalism,[3] or as a purposely obscure work that highlights the limitations of allegorical or symbolic art. [15], Panofsky considered but rejected the suggestion that the "I" in the title might indicate that Dürer had planned three other engravings on the four temperaments. Dürer était doué d’un esprit très ouvert, curieux de tout. Behind her, a windowless building with no clear architectural function[22][20] rises beyond the top of the frame. Melencolia I ou La Melencolia est le nom donné à une gravure sur cuivre d'Albrecht Dürer datée de 1514. [39], According to Panofsky, who wrote about the print three times between 1923 and 1964,[41] Melencolia I combines the traditional iconographies of melancholy and geometry, both governed by Saturn. [32], In contrast with Saint Jerome in His Study, which has a strong sense of linear perspective and an obvious source of light, Melencolia I is disorderly and lacks a "visual center". But what Dürer intended by the term, and how the print’s mysterious figures and perplexing objects contribute to its meaning, continue to be debated. Summarizing its art-historical legacy, he wrote that "the influence of Dürer's Melencolia I—the first representation in which the concept of melancholy was transplanted from the plane of scientific and pseudo-scientific folklore to the level of art—extended all over the European continent and lasted for more than three centuries."[4]. Numerous unused tools and mathematical instruments are scattered around, including a hammer and nails, a saw, a plane, pincers, a straightedge, a molder's form, and either the nozzle of a bellows or an enema syringe (clyster). [23] Attached to the structure is a balance scale above the putto, and above Melancholy is a bell and an hourglass with a sundial at the top. [11] Reflecting the medieval iconographical depiction of melancholy, she rests her head on a closed fist. Ficino thought that most intellectuals were influenced by Saturn and were thus melancholic. The Passion façade of the Sagrada Família contains a magic square based on[64] the magic square in Melencolia I. [33] It has few perspective lines leading to the vanishing point (below the bat-like creature at the horizon), which divides the diameter of the rainbow in the golden ratio. [46] Before the Renaissance, melancholics were portrayed as embodying the vice of acedia, meaning spiritual sloth. He visited Venice, Florence, and Rome, studying the Italian masters and producing important paintings of his own. Albrecht Dürer’s enigmatic Melencolia I has inspired and provoked viewers for nearly half a millennium. Born in Nuremberg, Dürer apprenticed first with his father, a goldsmith, and then with Michael Wolgemut, the leading painter and woodcut artist in the city. Il s'intéresse aussi aux proportions (proportions du cheval et proportions du corps humain). Cette gravure contient une multitude d'éléments symboliques en rapport avec les mathématiques. On the low wall behind the large polyhedron is a brazier with a goldsmith's crucible and a pair of tongs. One of Dürer’s three “master engravings,” Melencolia I has been linked by scholars to alchemy, astrology, theology, and philosophy, among other themes. Dürer settled in Nuremberg for the next decade, a period of explosive productivity. [6][13][14] Dürer mentions melancholy only once in his surviving writings. Iván Fenyő considered the print a representation of an artist beset by a loss of confidence, saying: "shortly before [Dürer] drew Melancholy, he wrote: 'what is beautiful I do not know' ... Melancholy is a lyric confession, the self-conscious introspection of the Renaissance artist, unprecedented in northern art. Lucas Cranach the Elder used its motifs in numerous paintings between 1528 and 1533. [53] The chaos of the print lends itself to modern interpretations that find it a comment on the limitations of reason, the mind and senses, and philosophical optimism. The square is rotated and one number in each row and column is reduced by one so the rows and columns add up to 33 instead of the standard 34 for a 4x4 magic square. After his return he focused mainly on portraits and small engravings. As the art historian Campbell Dodgson wrote in 1926, "The literature on Melancholia is more extensive than that on any other engraving by Dürer: that statement would probably remain true if the last two words were omitted. He worked in Basel and Strasbourg as a journeyman before visiting Venice in 1494–1495, where he became one of the first northern European artists to study the Italian Renaissance in situ. Albrecht Dürer, Melencolia I,1514, engraving, 24 x 18.5 cm (The Metropolitan Museum of Art) Albrecht Dürer is the rare artist who truly deserves to be called genius. But what Dürer intended by the term, and how the print’s mysterious figures and perplexing objects contribute to its meaning, continue to be debated. In front of the dog lies a perfect sphere, which has a radius equal to the apparent distance marked by the figure's compass. He eventually published books on geometry (1525), fortifications (1527), and the theory of human proportions (1528, soon after his death). ), 1943.3.3522. Melencoliadans l’œuvre de Dürer La célèbre gravure, souvent reproduite, a été exécutée en 1514 : la date figure dans les deux cases centrales de la dernière ligne du carré magique placé en haut et à droite de la gravure, au-dessous de la cloche. A putto seated on a millstone writes on a tablet while below, an emaciated dog sleeps between a sphere and a truncated polyhedron. [53] Martin Büchsel, in contrast to Panofsky, found the print a negation of Ficino's humanistic conception of melancholia. The unusual solid that dominates the left half of the image is a truncated rhombohedron[29][30] with what may be a faint skull[6] or face, possibly even of Dürer. He presented his final major work, the Four Apostles (1526), to the city of Nuremberg, which had adopted Lutheranism 18 months earlier. The new emperor renewed the pension Dürer had been granted by Maximilian I. [31] This shape is now known as Dürer's solid, and over the years, there have been numerous analyses of its mathematical properties. H. 239 mm - L. 168 mmm —> British Museum de Londres. In 1513–1514 Dürer produced three exceptional copper engravings—Knight, Death and Devil, Saint Jerome in His Study, and Melencolia I—that have come to be known collectively as the Meisterstiche, or Master Engravings. Il s'intéresse aussi aux proportions (proportions du cheval et proportions du corps humain). Post date: Sep 10, 2013 4:27:07 PM. Alleged to suffer from an excess of black bile, melancholics were thought to be especially prone to insanity. Cranach's paintings, however, contrast melancholy with childish gaiety, and in th… Instead of mediating a meaning, Melencolia seems designed to generate multiple and contradictory readings, to clue its viewers to an endless exegetical labor until, exhausted in the end, they discover their own portrait in Dürer's sleepless, inactive personification of melancholy. Le titre est pris de l'œuvre où il apparaît comme un élément de la composition. 4th St and Constitution Ave NW [17], The winged, androgynous central figure is thought to be a personification of melancholia or geometry. By the time of his second trip to Italy, 1505–1507, he was the most celebrated German artist of the period. Unlike many of his other prints, these engravings, large by Dürer’s standards, were intended more for connoisseurs and collectors than for popular devotion. [59][60] They share elements with Melencolia I such as a winged, seated woman, a sleeping or sitting dog, a sphere, and varying numbers of children playing, likely based on Durer's Putto. Dürer may have associated melancholia with creative activity;[2] the woman may be a representation of a Muse, awaiting inspiration but fearful that it will not return. They ask if that which is pleasant to sight and hearing is the beautiful, which Dürer symbolizes by the intense gaze of the figure, and the bell, respectively. "[5] Panofsky's studies in German and English, between 1923 and 1964 and sometimes with coauthors, have been especially influential. Les meilleures offres pour Albrecht DURER - Ancienne gravure de Johan Wiricx (Wierix) - Melencolia sont sur eBay Comparez les prix et les spécificités des produits neufs et d'occasion Pleins d'articles en livraison gratuite! Closed. Panofsky examined earlier personifications of geometry and found much similarity between Dürer's engraving and an allegory of geometry from Gregor Reisch's Margarita philosophica, a popular encyclopedia. 1, 171. The objects she has at hand are associated with geometry and measurement, fields of knowledge that were considered the building blocks of artistic creation and that Dürer studied doggedly in his quest to theorize absolute beauty. Albrecht Dürer, Emperor Maximilian I, c. 1518, woodcut, 1980.45.455. [7], The print contains numerous references to mathematics and geometry. Circulated widely, these prints established his international reputation. [6] On the face of the building is a 4×4 magic square—the first printed in Europe[25]—with the two middle cells of the bottom row giving the date of the engraving, 1514, which is also seen above Dürer's monogram at bottom right. At the same time, he wrote verse, studied languages and mathematics, and started drafting a treatise on the theory of art. A putto sits atop a millstone (or grindstone) with a chip in it. "[61], The print attracted nineteenth-century Romantic artists; self-portrait drawings by Henry Fuseli and Caspar David Friedrich show their interest in capturing the mood of the Melencolia figure, as does Friedrich's The Woman with the Spider's Web. Dürer might have been referring to this first type of melancholia, the artist's, by the "I" in the title. Under the influence of Saturn, ... the melancholic imagination could be led to remarkable achievements in the arts". Domenico Fetti's Melancholy/Meditation (c. 1620) is an important example; Panofsky et al. Melencolia I ou La Melencolia est le nom donné à une gravure sur cuivre d'Albrecht Dürer datée de 1514.Le titre est pris de l'œuvre où il apparaît comme un élément de la composition. Il signera Albertus Dürer Noricus (de Nuremberg) ou Dürer Alemanus ou encore de son monogramme, comme vous In the far distance is a landscape with small treed islands, suggesting flooding, and a sea. [6] Melencolia I is one of Dürer's three Meisterstiche ("master prints"), along with Knight, Death and the Devil (1513) and St. Jerome in His Study (1514). Image Download Dürer was exposed to a variety of literature that may have influenced the engraving by his friend and collaborator, the humanist Willibald Pirckheimer, who also translated from Greek.